Dating a penn scale

This resulted in a lack of coordination between these armies, which caused a miscarriage of the plan, a forced halt in the German advance, and the subsequent withdrawal north of the Marne.On the Allied side, the debacle of the Russian forces in East Prussia—a crushing defeat at the hands of General —was largely due to an almost total lack of signal communication.They were thus able to maintain contact with their homelands during their far-flung campaigns and to transmit messages with surprising speed. As he advanced upon his conquests he established pigeon relay posts across Asia and much of eastern Europe.He was thus able to use these messengers to transmit instructions to his capital for the governing of his distant dominions.Later Sir Home Popham increased the effectiveness of ship-to-ship communication by improved methods of flag signaling. The development of the of dots and dashes used with key and sounder was soon used to augment the various means of visual signaling.

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The organization and efficiency of the armies varied greatly.

Before the end of the 18th century European armies used the visual telegraph system devised by towers or poles with movable arms.

The Prussian army in 1833 assigned such visual telegraph duties to engineer troops.

At the same time that these elementary methods of signal communication were being evolved on land, a comparable development was going on at sea.

Early signaling between naval vessels was by prearranged messages transmitted by , lights, or the movement of a sail.

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